Advertising practitioners recognise the benefit of using celebrities in brand or product sponsorship. The ability to secure endorsement deals is equally important for the athletes as it is for the companies. Top grossing athletes, usually considered to have sports hero status, earn the majority of their incomes from endorsement deals rather than from their sporting contracts. Sports heroes are athletes who are recognised for their heightened athletic skills by participating in sport at the professional or Olympic level and who are advertised as a role models by the media. However, with the increased media attention on steroid use in professional and Olympic sport, practitioners now have to consider the potential effects of a cloud of suspicion regarding steroid allegations on a sports hero’s perceived endorsement value.

Year Manuscript Completed



Sports sponsorship; Sports marketing; Sports public relations

Primary Language of Manuscript


01Front.pdf (64 kB)