This research focuses on the role of employers’ organisations and trade unions in the United Kingdom and the European Union in the development of climate change policy. Overall conclusions from the research are that while employers’ organisations and trade union organisations serve the needs of their members in an effective and efficient manner in the United Kingdom and European Union, they do not always see climate change policy as a priority. The research has established, however, that employers’ organisations and trade unions are an active and effective component of the fabric of civil society in relation to climate change negotiations, making a strong case for ecological modernisation theorists to move beyond the narrow conception of civil society as environmental activists.

Year Manuscript Completed


Additional Categories

Environmental Sciences (0768)


Climatic changes Political aspects; Climatic changes Economic aspects; Environmental policy; Labor unions Political activity.

Primary Language of Manuscript


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