How do general practitioners and patients make decisions about cardiovascular disease risk?
Date of this Version
The study was funded by theNHMRC, through grants awarded to the Screening and Test Evaluation Program (No. 633003) and Bond University (No. 511217); and the National Heart Foundation, under the Prevention in Primary Health Care Program.
Objective: Although current guidelines around the world recommend using absolute risk (AR) thresholds to decide whether cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk should be managed with lifestyle or medication, the use of AR in clinical practice is limited. The aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence general practitioner (GP) and patient decision making about CVD risk management, including the role of risk perception. Methods: Qualitative descriptive study involving semi-structured interviews with 25 GPs and 38 patients in Australia in 2011-2012. Transcribed audio-recordings were thematically coded and a Framework Analysis method was used. Results: GPs rarely mentioned AR thresholds but were influenced by their subjective perception of the patient's risk and motivation, and their own attitudes toward prevention, including concerns about medication side effects and the efficacy of lifestyle change. Patients were influenced by individual risk factors, their own motivation to change lifestyle, and attitudes toward medication: initially negative, but this improved if medication was more effective than lifestyle. High perceived risk led to medication being recommended by GPs and accepted by patients, but this was not necessarily based on AR. Patient perceptions of high risk also increased motivation to change lifestyle, particularly if they were resistant to the idea of taking medication. Conclusions: Perceived risk, motivation, and attitudes appeared to be more important than AR thresholds in this study. CVD risk management guidelines could be more useful if they include strategies to help GPs consider patients' risk perception, motivation, and attitudes as well as evidence-based recommendations.
This document has been peer reviewed.