Surgical and topographic anatomy of the maxillary line: An important landmark for endoscopic nasal surgery
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The maxillary line is an important surgical landmark in the lateral nasal cavity. We investigated its location, variation, and relation to other landmarks in 47 formalin fixed cadaveric half-heads dissected in steps. Measurements and observations were made to describe the topography of the maxillary line, maxillary line midpoint (M-point), and their relationship with surgically important structures. The mean curved length of the maxillary line was 15 mm (SD 3.5) and can be classified into three types. The Mpoint had a mean vertical distance of 0.8 mm (SD 2.9) below the nasolacrimal sac–duct junction. It was found below, above, or on the same level as the nasolacrimal sac–duct junction in 57.4%, 38.3%, and 4.3% of specimens, respectively. In 51.1% the M-point was anterior to the nasolacrimal duct axis and 48.9% overlapping the lacrimal apparatus. The maxillary line and its M-point are useful surgical landmarks for localizing the nasolacrimal duct segments.
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