Biocompatibility of individually designed scaffolds with human periosteum for use in tissue engineering
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The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the biocompatibility of computer-assisted designed (CAD) synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalciumphosphate (TCP) blocks and natural bovine hydroxyapatite blocks for augmentations and endocultivation by supporting and promoting the proliferation of human periosteal cells. Human periosteum cells were cultured using an osteogenic medium consisting of Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium supplemented with fetal calf serum, Penicillin, Streptomycin and ascorbic acid at 37°C with 5% CO2. Three scaffolds were tested: 3D-printed HA, 3D-printed TCP and bovine HA. Cell vitality was assessed by Fluorescein Diacetate (FDA) and Propidium Iodide (PI) staining, biocompatibility with LDH, MTT, WST and BrdU tests, and scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed with ANOVAs. Results: After 24 h all samples showed viable periosteal cells, mixed with some dead cells for the bovine HA group and very few dead cells for the printed HA and TCP groups. The biocompatibility tests revealed that proliferation on all scaffolds after treatment with eluate was sometimes even higher than controls. Scanning electron microscopy showed that periosteal cells formed layers covering the surfaces of all scaffolds 7 days after seeding. Conclusion: It can be concluded from our data that the tested materials are biocompatible for periosteal cells and thus can be used as scaffolds to augment bone using tissue engineering methods
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