Prevalence and risk factors of sarcopenia among adults living in nursing homes
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Objectives: Sarcopenia is a progressive loss of skeletal muscle and muscle function, with significant healthand disability consequences for older adults. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors ofsarcopenia among older residential aged care adults using the European Working Group on Sarcopeniain Older People (EWGSOP) criteria.Study design: A cross-sectional study design that assessed older people (n = 102, mean age 84.5 ± 8.2 years)residing in 11 long-term nursing homes in Australia.Main outcome measurements: Sarcopenia was diagnosed from assessments of skeletal mass index bybioelectrical impedance analysis, muscle strength by handheld dynamometer, and physical performanceby the 2.4 m habitual walking speed test. Secondary variables where collected to inform a risk factoranalysis.Results: Forty one (40.2%) participants were diagnosed as sarcopenic, 38 (95%) of whom were categorizedas having severe sarcopenia. Univariate logistic regression found that body mass index (BMI) (Oddsratio (OR) = 0.86; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78–0.94), low physical performance (OR = 0.83; 95% CI0.69–1.00), nutritional status (OR = 0.19; 95% CI 0.05–0.68) and sitting time (OR = 1.18; 95% CI 1.00–1.39)were predictive of sarcopenia. With multivariate logistic regression, only low BMI (OR = 0.80; 95% CI0.65–0.97) remained predictive.Conclusions: The prevalence of sarcopenia among older residential aged care adults is very high. Inaddition, low BMI is a predictive of sarcopenia.
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