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If there is one enduring feature of international relations in the 21st Century, it is the rise of Asia as the economic, and increasingly political, heartland of the world. As the 2013 Australia defence white paper noted, "Australia’s national security is intrinsically linked to the economic and strategic transformation in our region and the world."2 This ‘transformation’ is unmatched globally, presenting both opportunities and threats for Australia. The ‘transformations’ explored in this article include a rapidly rising, and increasingly belligerent China, a Japan taking steps away from its post-war pacifism and questions over US decline and its commitment to the ‘pivot’ to Asia. For Australia, navigating these dynamics requires ambitious and flexible policy actions; ones guided by its strategic culture.