Date of this Version


Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Details

Accepted version

Gepp, A., & Stocks, P. (2009). A review of procedures to evolve quantum algorithms. Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines, 10(2), 181-228.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

The final publication is available at Springer via


1389-2576 (print), 1573-7632 (online)


There exist quantum algorithms that are more efficient than their classical counterparts; such algorithms were invented by Shor in 1994 and then Grover in 1996. A lack of invention since Grover's algorithm has been commonly attributed to the non-intuitive nature of quantum algorithms to the classically trained person. Thus, the idea of using computers to automatically generate quantum algorithms based on an evolutionary model emerged. A limitation of this approach is that quantum computers do not yet exist and quantum simulation on a classical machine has an exponential order overhead. Nevertheless, early research into evolving quantum algorithms has shown promise. This paper provides an introduction into quantum and evolutionary algorithms for the computer scientist not familiar with these fields. The exciting field of using evolutionary algorithms to evolve quantum algorithms is then reviewed. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.



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