Reflecting, tinkering, and tailoring: Implications for theories of information system design
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The design and embedding of technical artifacts in complex task, social, and organizational environments is fundamental to IS. Yet in Design Science Research (DSR) and in the information system development process, the role of the humans who will use the system has been marginalized to that of a source in a requirements elicitation process, a subject in participatory design, or worse, a "user" of the designed technological artifact (Bannon 1991). While recent research (Kensing et al. 1998; Kensing and Blomberg 1998; Grudin and Pruitt 2002) has positioned end-users as participants involved in the design process, this work has largely focused on the primary desgin phase of technology artifacts. We have not seen a conscious, research driven approach which posits people as free, intelligent, and intentional designers in the ongoing recreation of information systems through a process of secondary design in the context of use.
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