Recent thinking has underlined that effective knowledge management (KM) can be achieved through ‘communities of practice’. A community of practice (CoP) is a group of people who share a concern, a set of problems, or a passion about a topic, and who deepen their knowledge and expertise in this area by interacting on an ongoing basis with a collective expectation that positive change will occur as a result. Reported benefits include increasing access to expertise across organisational strongholds, as well as assisting practitioners to improve their understanding of best practice and innovation in their field. More generally, CoP are said to bring about greater alignment between the strategic objectives of an organisation and its day-to-day operations.