Although nearly half of the American states provide some form of private judging, none does so as extensively as California. This state first made provision for a private judge system in the California Code of Civil Procedure in 1872 but little use was made of it until the 1970s.
"Private judging in California,"
ADR Bulletin: Vol. 1
, Article 3.
Available at: https://epublications.bond.edu.au/adr/vol1/iss7/3