The biological underpinnings of sex differences were explored in relation to male- and female-specific functioning in typical development as a means of understanding how these factors may inform similar sex-based variation in atypical development. The influence of genetic and hormonal factors was explored in relation to sex-specific brain development and the subsequent sex-based variation in behaviour, including intelligence, social characteristics, and personality traits. Discussion then addressed sex differences in the symptom manifestation of mental disorder (i.e., depression and anxiety) and developmental disorder with a particular focus on Autism Spectrum Disorder. An exploration of the methodological issues encountered in researching sex-specific behavioural profiles in autism is presented highlighting the need for incorporating sex as a variable in future studies of ASD to better inform the diagnosis and treatment of females.

Year Manuscript Completed



Mental Disorders | Psychiatric and Mental Health


Mental health; Sex differences; Autism spectrum disorders; Mental Disorders.

Primary Language of Manuscript


01Front.pdf (466 kB)