Green taxes are used widely overseas and increasingly in Australia. There are four main categories. 1. Taxes, levies, fees and other charges, including development taxes, rezoning charges, emission charges, emission licence fees, environmental protection charges, input taxes, resource rents and royalties, sliding charges for utilities, and product levies. 2. Tradeable, bankable and marketable rights and credits, including tradeable emission rights, emission reduction credits, transferable development credits, tradeable resource quotas, and tradeable emission leases. 3. Other economic instruments such as refundable deposits, performance bonds and guarantess, and subsidies, 4. Income tax concessions and differential sales taxes and import duties. Recent High Court authority suggests that whilst some of these instrucments would be excises and hence could be imposed only by the Commonwealth, most could also be imposed by state government and some also by local government. Their economic and policy advantages and disadvantages are reviewed.
"Green Taxes : Legal and Policy Issues in Using Economic Instruments for Environmental Management ,"
Revenue Law Journal: Vol. 2
, Article 4.
Available at: http://epublications.bond.edu.au/rlj/vol2/iss1/4