Multiobjective optimization for small meander wire dipole antennas in a fixed area using ant colony system
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Fixed area meander line antennas designed on a 5 × 5 rectangular grid were optimized for efficiency and resonant frequency. The Pareto front was developed using ant colony optimization and the numerical electromagnetic code. The lowest frequency antenna fits an area of 0.11λ0 × 0.05λ0 with an efficiency of 88%.
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