Factor structure of the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ): Exploratory and Lisrel analyses
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Much of the extant psychological literature which is based on research with female subjects has failed to take into account possible interactions with menstrual cycle symptoms and mood states. There is an extensive body of literature documenting the association of increased negative affectivity with the premenstruum (e.g. Moos & Leiderman, 1978; Reichlin, Abplanalp, Labrum, Schwartz, Sommer & Taymore, 1979; Friedman, Hurt, Arnoff & Clarkin, 1980; Foresti, Ferraro, Reithaar, Berlanda, Volpi, Drago & Cerutti, 1981; Sampson & Prescott, 1981; DeLeon-Jones, Val & Herts, 1982; Backstrom, Sanders, Leask, Davidson, Warner & Bancroft, 1983; Haskett, Steiner & Carroll, 1984). In an investigation of paramenstrual (comprising Day 1 of menstruation together with the three immediately preceding "premenstrual" days) susceptibility to depressogenic stimuli, Boyle (1985b) reported that normal young women in the late luteal phase of the monthly cycle who were exposed to such stimuli [via the Velten (1968) mood-induction procedure] exhibited significantly more negative post-induction mood states [namely, Sadness, Shame, Fear and Hostility - as measured via the Differential Emotions Scale (Boyle, 1984)] than did women subjected only to emotionally neutral stimuli.
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