Title

Dietary and fluid restrictions in CKD: A thematic synthesis of patient views from qualitative studies

Date of this Version

4-2015

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Details

Citation only

Palmer, S.C., Hanson, C.S., Craig, J.C., Strippoli, G.F.M., Ruospo, M., Campbell, K., Johnson, D.W. , & Tong, A. (2015). Dietary and fluid restrictions in CKD: A thematic synthesis of patient views from qualitative studies. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 65(4), 559-573.

Access the journal

2015 HERDC submission

© 2014 National Kidney Foundation

ISSN

1523-6838

Abstract

Background

Managing the complex fluid and diet requirements of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is challenging for patients. We aimed to summarize patients' perspectives of dietary and fluid management in CKD to inform clinical practice and research. Study Design Systematic review of qualitative studies.

Setting & Population

Adults with CKD who express opinions about dietary and fluid management.

Search Strategy & Sources

MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Google Scholar, reference lists, and PhD dissertations were searched to May 2013.

Analytical Approach

Thematic synthesis.

Results

We included 46 studies involving 816 patients living in middle- to high-income countries. Studies involved patients treated with facility-based and home hemodialysis (33 studies; 462 patients), peritoneal dialysis (10 studies; 112 patients), either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis (3 studies; 73 patients), kidney transplant recipients (9 studies; 89 patients), and patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD stages 1 to 5 (5 studies; 80 patients). Five major themes were identified: preserving relationships (interference with roles, social limitations, and being a burden), navigating change (feeling deprived, disrupting held truths, breaking habits and norms, being overwhelmed by information, questioning efficacy, and negotiating priorities), fighting temptation (resisting impositions, experiencing mental invasion, and withstanding physiologic needs), optimizing health (accepting responsibility, valuing self-management, preventing disease progression, and preparing for and protecting a transplant), and becoming empowered (comprehending paradoxes, finding solutions, and mastering change and demands).

Limitations

Limited data in non-English languages and low-income settings and for adults with CKD not treated with hemodialysis.

Conclusions

Dietary and fluid restrictions are disorienting and an intense burden for patients with CKD. Patient-prioritized education strategies, harnessing patients' motivation to stay well for a transplant or to avoid dialysis, and viewing adaptation to restrictions as a collaborative journey are suggested strategies to help patients adjust to dietary regimens in order to reduce their impact on quality of life

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This document has been peer reviewed.