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Like immigration itself, economic research on migration seems to come in waves. The large scale of current global migration, and the sometimes quite ugly politics associated with that migration, has produced just such a wave of research. Theoretical and empirical research on immigration, in particular, occurs across the social sciences, with particularly large bodies in economics, demography/sociology, and political science. Within Economics, the study of immigration falls between trade and labor economics, with sizable bodies of both theoretical and econometric work. To limit the field of coverage, and maintain consistency with the other chapters in the volume, we will focus on a set of questions framed by standard trade theoretic models and the empirical research that bears on those questions. To the extent possible, we will focus on graphical representations that permit easy grasping of the intuition.