Bodybuilding is an appearance-oriented sport that involves performing a series of poses on stage where judges rank each competitor on muscular mass, symmetry and definition. In contrast, powerlifting is a sport that consists of the maximal weight lifted for three lifts (i.e. squat, bench press, and deadlift). Even though resistance training is a central component in preparation for bodybuilding and powerlifting competitions, exercise specifics and dietary practices reportedly differ due to the requirements of these respective sports. This cross-sectional study design aims to examine the physique traits, muscle performance, and health of individuals that compete in natural bodybuilding and powerlifting.

Project lead

Dr Daniel Hackett, University of Sydney

Project collaborators

  • Dr Helen O Conner, University of Sydney
  • Dr Yorgi Mavros, University of Sydney
  • Dr Jillian Clarke, University of Sydney
  • Dr Gary Slater, University of Sunshine Coast
  • Associate Professor Justin Keogh, Bond University
  • Associate Professor Chris McLellan, Bond University
  • Ms Mandy Hagstrom, University of New England


Submissions from 2017


Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), Daniel Hackett


Muscle strength, endurance and power testing, Daniel Hackett


Participant Consent Form, Daniel Hackett


Participant Information Statement, Daniel Hackett


Pulse wave assessment, Daniel Hackett