The Iranian Revolution of 1979 provides a pertinent case study for such analysis, considering its distinct revolutionary phases, well-documented events (due to attention of the international community at that time), and similarities to other internal conflicts. Thus, this paper will begin by providing an historical overview of the Iranian Revolution and analysing the status of the conflict. Focus will then shift to an examination of the status of civilians involved in the revolution and associated protections. The legality (at LOAC) of the prosecution and punishment of former government officials and counter-revolutionary civilians, following the establishment of the Republic of Iran, are also considered. Finally, gaps and ambiguities in LOAC are identified before proposing recommendations to promoting greater protections and obligations for those who participate in intrastate revolutions. The emergence of an unregulated, or at least under-regulated, form of violent armed conflict must be prevented to ensure the principles of LOAC are upheld.

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