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Abstract

Doping has always been one of the major issues in sport, and no sporting event has had more doping issues in recent years than the Tour de France. Both 2006 winner, Floyd Landis, and 2010 winner, Alberto Contador, lost their titles after testing carried out during those Tours later showed the use of banned substances. In 2013 seven times Tour winner, Lance Armstrong, lost all his titles after a USADA Report produced overwhelming testimonial and documentary evidence of systematic doping by Armstrong on each of those Tours. The Armstrong case also indicated that anti-doping authorities can now prove doping by any reliable means, rather than relying only on the results of drug tests.

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