There are a number of predictable hurdles faced by negotiators and mediators. One of these is the tendency of negotiators to say or raise suspicions that they do not have authority to settle. Rather they must first consult with influential outsiders or constituents.
The types of outside influencers are described, and a routine process is suggested to identify important constituents or “tribes”; then to normalize, reframe and turn this barrier into a standard problem solving question such as, “How to manage any influential outsiders?”
Thirteen possible responses to this question (each with inevitable advantages and disadvantages) are systematized for mediators and negotiators to learn and possibly “add value” to any negotiation.
"Bargaining in the Shadow of the Tribe and Limited Authority to Settle,"
Bond Law Review:
2, Article 10.
Available at: http://epublications.bond.edu.au/blr/vol15/iss2/10