There is a vast literature on group development. Generally it describes how groups change over time by means of phases or stages. Perhaps the best known of these is Tuchman’s five-stage model developed in 1965, which may be so popular because of its rhyming qualities!
"Working on group decision making: the role of the facilitator,"
ADR Bulletin: Vol. 7
, Article 2.
Available at: http://epublications.bond.edu.au/adr/vol7/iss4/2