Although nearly half of the American states provide some form of private judging, none does so as extensively as California. This state first made provision for a private judge system in the California Code of Civil Procedure in 1872 but little use was made of it until the 1970s.
"Private judging in California,"
7, Article 3.
Available at: http://epublications.bond.edu.au/adr/vol1/iss7/3